Here are the key takeaways from the house hacking guide:
- House hacking involves buying a property and renting part of it out to cover your own housing costs. Common approaches include renting spare rooms, adding rental units, or renting out part of a multifamily building.
- Benefits of house hacking include reducing living expenses, building wealth through real estate, gaining landlord experience, and progressing towards financial freedom.
- Good properties to house hack include single family homes with extra bedrooms, multifamily properties like duplexes, or a primary residence with a detached ADU.
- Financing options include conventional loans, FHA, VA, and alternative lending sources like private loans.
- Finding deals involves checking online listings, networking with agents and investors, and driving target neighborhoods.
- Preparing the property involves repairs, designating common and private areas, and thoroughly screening tenants.
- Ongoing duties include collecting rent, handling maintenance, and following applicable laws and regulations.
- Scaling your house hack involves adding value through improvements, refinancing to access equity, and acquiring additional units.
- House hacking requires effort but can lead to living for reduced cost while building real estate wealth and passive income over time.
An Introduction to House Hacking
House hacking involves purchasing a property with the intention of renting out some of its space to cover your own housing expenses. Common approaches include:
- Renting out spare rooms in a single-family home: This involves buying a home with extra bedrooms and renting them out to tenants while you live in the master suite. This allows you to offset your mortgage with rental income.
- Converting basements or garages into rental units: You can transform spaces like basements, attics or garages into separate rental units by adding kitchenettes, bathrooms and separate entrances. These fully separate units bring in more rental income.
- Splitting duplexes or multifamily properties into owner-occupied and tenant units: You can buy a duplex, triplex or fourplex property and live in one unit while renting the rest out. This maximizes rental income potential from multiple units.
The rental income generated can completely eliminate or greatly reduce your personal housing costs.
People house hack to:
- Reduce living expenses and save money: House hacking allows you to have little to no housing expenses by using rental income to cover costs. This frees up more cash flow.
- Build long-term wealth through real estate: Rental income can accelerate paying off mortgages faster. Appreciation over time also builds significant equity.
- Gain experience as a landlord: Managing your rental units provides hands-on experience to prepare you for future investment properties.
- Progress towards financial freedom: House hacking income can eventually replace active employment income and provide passive cash flow in retirement.
Done right, house hacking provides incredible benefits. But it also requires following key best practices covered in this guide.
Choosing the Right Property to House Hack
Many different property types can be house hacked. Consider these options:
Single Family with Rental Rooms
- Easiest option for first-time investors: Converting spare bedrooms into rentals requires minimal work compared to adding separate units.
- Generates rental income from spare bedrooms: Each bedroom rented can bring $500-1000+ in monthly income depending on market rates.
- Additional owner suites provide privacy: Having your own bedroom/bathroom suite separates your living space from tenants.
- Limited to rental income from rooms versus entire units: Bedrooms bring less income than standalone units that can accommodate multiple tenants.
Duplex or Multifamily
- Live in one unit while renting the other(s): You save on living costs by renting the other unit(s) in a duplex, triplex etc. Rental income often exceeds total housing expenses.
- Entire unit rentals provide higher income: Each unit can be rented out to multiple tenants, bringing in significantly more rental income than just spare rooms.
- Multifamily properties allow additional units to rent: Triplexes and fourplexes have even more units to rent out for maximum rental income.
- Shared walls and limited privacy living onsite: Noise and proximity to your tenants may require some adjustment living in a duplex or multifamily building.
Primary Residence with ADU
- Detached ADU provides fully separate rental: A detached ADU operates much like an additional single family residence, minimizing owner disruption.
- ADU adds minimal owner disruption: The physical separation from an ADU preserves independence and privacy for owners versus shared building units.
- Costly construction for new ADU: Adding a new ADU can require significant permits, construction costs and time to build.
- Limited to income from just the ADU unit: Unlike a duplex or multifamily, only one extra rental unit is possible with an ADU.
Evaluate your budget, skills, and preferences when choosing the ideal property to hack.
Financing Your House Hack
You have several options to fund your purchase:
- Low down payment requirements, usually 3-5%: Conventional loans allow small down payments of just a few percent, making them more accessible.
- Primary residence rates still apply: You can still get preferable primary home interest rates even if renting part of the property.
- Must qualify based on your personal income and credit: Lenders assess your individual financial credentials, not potential rental income.
- Limits on number of rental units financed: Many conventional loans allow 1-2 boarders but not necessarily entire separate units.
- Only 3.5% down payment needed: FHA loans offer low down payments, allowing you to buy with less money upfront.
- Competitive interest rates: FHA rates are near market averages, making them affordable.
- Income from units can supplement personal qualifications: FHA looks at expected rental income in assessing your ability to pay the mortgage.
- Must live on-site minimum of 12 months: FHA requires you to occupy the property as your primary residence for at least one year initially.
- Zero down payment required for veterans: Eligible veterans can purchase with no money down, making home buying more accessible.
- No monthly PMI insurance payments: VA loans do not require costly private mortgage insurance that adds to monthly costs.
- 6-12 month owner residency requirement: As with FHA loans, veterans must live in the home for 6-12 months before renting.
- Rental income can offset qualifications: Expected rental income is added to veterans’ personal income in assessing affordability.
- Hard money loans based on the asset versus your credit: Hard money lenders focus on the property’s potential versus your credit scores.
- Private lending from individuals: You can source financing from private lenders like family members instead of institutions.
- Crowdfunded investments: Pool money from multiple individual investors.
- Trading services for reduced costs: Provide labor or other services to the seller to lower purchase price.
Explore all options to find affordable financing suited to your particular property and financial situation.
Finding Deals and Evaluating Properties
Now it’s time to hunt for promising properties to turn into your new house hack:
Check Online Listing Platforms
- Filter searches by property types, sizes, locations: Use advanced filters to narrow down listings to relevant house hacking opportunities.
- Look for listings well below market value: Sort by lowest list price to find potential deals.
- Search by keywords like “multi-family”, “duplex” etc: Keyword searches surface house hacking candidates.
- Setup custom alerts for new deals matching your criteria: Get email notifications when new relevant listings are posted that meet your filters.
Network with Agents and Investors
- Reach out to agents who specialize in multifamily properties: Experienced agents may know of off-market house hacking opportunities.
- Join local real estate investor associations: Connect with other investors to uncover deals before they hit the open market.
- Build relationships with agents/brokers to gain access to off-market deals: Agents you have rapport with can let you know when deals arise.
Drive Target Neighborhoods
- Look for “For Rent” signs indicating multifamily properties: Drive areas you’re interested in and look for rental signs suggesting duplex/multifamily owners.
- Identify duplexes, fourplexes, and other multifamily dwellings: Look for properties with multiple entrances, mailboxes etc.
- Search for ADUs that may not be listed online: You can find hidden ADU opportunities not widely advertised.
- Knock on doors of appealing properties to ask about selling: Stop by properties that seem to fit your criteria and inquire directly with owners.
Thoroughly vet all potential purchases for issues, costs, permits, and financials. Make data-driven offers backed by comps.
Preparing Your Property for Tenants
Once you close on your property, take steps to optimize it for rentals:
Make Any Needed Repairs and Renovations
- Address safety issues, maintenance problems, and code violations: Fix any issues that could negatively impact tenants or violate local housing codes.
- Update fixtures, floors, paint that are dated or worn: Cosmetic upgrades make units more appealing to prospective tenants.
- Improve kitchens and bathrooms to command top rents: Updated kitchens and baths allow you to charge premium rents.
- Add built-ins like organizers to maximize space: Built-in storage solutions help utilize every square foot.
Designate Clear Common and Private Areas
- Keep certain rooms like your bedroom private: Mark rooms that are off-limits to tenants.
- Furnish common rooms appropriately: Setup shared living rooms and kitchens suitably for tenants.
- Set house rules for shared spaces like kitchens, yards: Outline kitchen etiquette, quiet hours, parking arrangements.
Screen Potential Tenants Thoroughly
- Post listings marketing available rooms or units: List your units widely to attract the maximum interest.
- Run background/credit checks to confirm qualifications: Thoroughly vet applicants to avoid problem tenants.
- Call references and verify income and employment: Check references to evaluate responsibility and character.
Taking time upfront avoids problem tenants down the road.
Managing Your House Hack
Ongoing duties include:
Processing Rent and Payments
- Use a designated account to receive and track rents: A separate rental account keeps funds organized.
- Charge late fees for overdue payments per your lease: Enforce late fees consistently to encourage timely payment.
- Follow local laws regarding fees, increases, security deposits: Comply with relevant landlord-tenant laws in your area.
Handling Maintenance and Repairs
- Outsource tasks like plumbing, electrical to experts: Use experienced handymen for skilled work versus DIY.
- Schedule an annual walkthrough to identify needs proactively: Look for preventative maintenance yearly.
- Maintain a budget and supplies for handling routine fixes: Have systems and budget in place to handle incidentals.
Complying with Laws and Regulations
- Follow Fair Housing rules regarding tenant discrimination: Don’t discriminate against protected classes.
- Honor warrant of habitability by ensuring livable conditions: Provide heat, water, safe conditions per the warranty of habitability.
- Provide legal notices for entry, terminations, tax documents: Send required notices in writing on time.
Strong management systems create harmonious tenant relations and maximize returns.
Scaling Your House Hack to the Next Level
Over time, expand your portfolio and income potential:
Add Value Through Improvements
- Finish unfinished spaces like basements for more rentals: Convert unfinished areas into leasable units.
- Convert garages into ADUs as permitted: Build out garages to create new income streams.
- Update fixtures and finishes to increase rents: Nicer finishes allow you to increase rental rates.
Refinance to Cash Out Equity
- Once rental history is established, refinance for favorable investment loan terms: Your track record helps you qualify for loans with better rates/terms.
- Cash out equity to use as down payment on additional properties: Tap accumulated equity for new acquisitions.
Acquire More Units
- Repeat the house hacking model by continuing to live in one unit of a duplex, fourplex etc: Use house hacking strategies as you expand your portfolio.
- Hire property managers to handle day-to-day tenant management at scale: Property managers handle tenants so you can focus on higher priorities.
House hacking can create the foundation for building a thriving rental portfolio over time.
House hacking allows almost anyone to reduce their housing costs substantially while building real estate wealth. By strategically financing, renting, and managing a residential investment property, you can cover your own housing expenses and more. House hacking does require hands-on effort, but yields outsized benefits. With the right property and approach, you can house hack your way to financial freedom.